2 edition of Estimation of small system water treatment costs found in the catalog.
Estimation of small system water treatment costs
Robert C Gumerman
1985 by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Engineering Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH .
Written in English
|Statement||Robert C. Gumerman, Bruce E. Burris, and Sigurd P. Hansen|
|Contributions||Burris, Bruce E, Hansen, Sigurd P, Water Engineering Research Laboratory|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||2 p. ;|
More complex streams, higher flow rates, and higher effluent quality standards will all drive the system cost upward. All costs are presented in terms of Decemberdollars, and a discussion is included on cost updating. For example: Will there be any taxes on the system or additional purchasing fees? Space requirements. Target purity It is also important to understand the target output you wish to achieve from an industrial water treatment system. Also consider that there will be costs to treating the secondary waste produced by the system.
Shipping the system to your plant. The specific equipment used in your system will depend heavily upon which of these treatment types you need, as well as the unique conditions of your process and plant. In many cases, you may also have the flexibility to choose between less-costly manual controls and comparatively more expensive automated PLC panels. Burris, AND S.
Level of system automation needed. Zero liquid discharge ZLD systems present a special case where waste treatment is concerned. The second option is a lower level of automation with less capital cost, but with added labor, this can end up costing you more in the long run. Labor costs can vary widely from one location to the next, so be sure to investigate the installation rates specific to your area when planning your project budget. Alternately, in rolling terrain, the engineer will be able to take advantage of the natural descent of the terrain to provide the proper slope of the piping system. Filter presses for sludge dewatering.
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Construction and Estimation of small system water treatment costs book and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are considered to be especially applicable to contaminant removal or to the treatment and disposal of sludges or brines produced by the treatment processes.
The model is based on the use of SPD-type pumps. In warm climates, the pipe may be buried just deep enough to provide protection against mechanical damage. The cost for design, engineering, equipment, installation, and startup for process water treatment systems can vary greatly from one application to the next: Boiler feed water treatment systems.
Target purity It is also important to understand the target output you wish to achieve from an industrial water treatment system.
Operation costs. When purchasing a wastewater treatment system, you might also want to keep in mind what other hidden costs and fees might be.
Here are some important questions to address: Does your plant process foods that leave you with wastewater heavy in BOD, oils, and grease? A series of reactors and chemical additions to adjust the pH and precipitate out metals from the solution.
This is reflected in Table 2. The baseline construction costs used in the model assume tractable soil. Also be sure to ask your system manufacturer about options that might be cheaper to install.
Operation and maintenance requirements were determined individually for three categories: energy building and process ; maintenance material; and labor. The model assumes a typical pipe in a gravity sewer to be 8-inch PVC. Topography also will dictate the burial depth of the gravity lines.
The following is a list of equipment commonly deployed across a variety of industrial water treatment systems: Clarifiers for removal of suspended solids by sedimentation, flocculation, or coagulation.
Because of the solids content in unground wastewater, gravity lines must be sized large enough to prevent plugging or restriction by unground gross solids. Two main questions will help you narrow this down: What are the wastewater characterizations of the production facility? It is believed that this is a realistic range since most collection systems will start at 3 to 4 feet deeper if Estimation of small system water treatment costs book basements and descend to about 18 to 24 feet before requiring a pumping station.
It allows you to see whether the necessary funds are available to support the project. Alternately, in rolling terrain, the engineer will be able to take advantage of the natural descent of the terrain to provide the proper slope of the piping system. Trenching costs assumed bank-run sand bedding 12 inches over the crown of pipe and include backfill and compaction.
Industrial water treatment encompasses a few main types, including water treatment, process purification and separation, and wastewater treatment. For example, if your plant runs a plating operation, some of the issues we often see are the need for pH stabilization, suspended solids, and metals removal.
Finally, in steep terrain, the authors believe a higher percentage of the piping network will require installation at the greater depths.
A benefit to having your system prepackaged is that the production facilities and fabrication shops that assemble your system are, more often than not, highly knowledgeable about the type of system they are manufacturing.
It is important to understand Estimation of small system water treatment costs book look into any extra costs or hidden fees you might incur. The critical first step in securing an industrial water treatment system is planning the concepts, designs, and regulatory requirements for your project.
When you are looking to purchase your system, check with your manufacturer to see if there is a facility where the system can be constructed closer to you, if not on-site. The second option is a lower level of automation with less capital cost, but with added labor, this can end up costing you more in the long run.
Because the wastewater has been ground into a slurry and is under pressure, the small-diameter pipelines can be placed in narrow, relatively shallow trenches following the contour of the land whether uphill, downhill or over extended sections of flat terrain.
Estimated costs for various types of process separation units are as follows: Microfiltration MF and ultrafiltration UF systems. At that point, a pumping station will be used to lift the wastewater up to near grade to begin the next descending run.The Alaska Job Corps Water and Wastewater Operator Training program provides education and training so students can obtain a Level 1 operator certificate in Water Treatment (WT), Waste Water Treatment (WWT), Water Distribution (WD) or Waste Water Collection (WWC).
(Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation’s. As reported earlier this year, a CD-ROM has been developed in the USA that can be used to Estimation of small system water treatment costs book membrane water treatment costs.
This disk, the details of which appear in the June issue of Membrane Technology, is designed to be used by end-users, consultants, managers and engineers, to help them evaluate and compare water treatment processes that employ reverse osmosis and.
Cost Estimating Manual for Water Treatment Facilities [Susumu Kawamura, William T. McGivney] The authors then demonstrate how to calculate costs for each element, accounting for needed mark-ups and allowances in order to arrive at the total plant construction magicechomusic.com by: The Alaska Job Corps Water and Wastewater Operator Pdf program provides education and training so students can obtain a Level 1 operator certificate in Water Treatment (WT), Waste Water Treatment (WWT), Water Distribution (WD) or Waste Water Collection (WWC).
(Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation’s.August I:\07\\\ChinoCCPAug07\AppD-WtrTrtmtCost\magicechomusic.com Golder Associates INTRODUCTION This report presents the cost estimate bases for the proposed mine-wide water treatment portion of the.This report presents cost data for unit processes that are capable of removing ebook included ebook the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations.
Construction and operation and maintenance cost data are presented for 45 centralized treatment unit processes that are considered to be especially applicable to contaminant removal or to the treatment and disposal of sludges or brines.